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ICT: Information and Communication Technology

In this article, we discussed the role of ICT in socio-economic development through different aspects. We provide a conceptual framework through few aspects that affect social development: Policy, business, technology, and society.

The global change puts pressure on the United Nations to permanently acquire/use new teaching skills and techniques by adopting relevant technologies to deal with globalization trends. Education is at the crossroads of powerful and rapidly changing technological and political forces. The ICT will shape the structure of the education system around the world.

Role Of ICT In Society:

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays an essential role in all aspects of modern society. ICT has changed how we communicate with each other and how we learn information. It also has changed the work, conduct business, interact with government agencies, and find ways to manage our social life. As ICT affects daily life it also affects economic growth, affecting society further by improving infrastructure and living standards.

This special edition paper discusses the role of ICT in various aspects of society and socio-economic development. These include education and training, administration, corporate relations, project management, service delivery, and medical care. In this article, we try to provide some structure around the role of ICT in this socio-economic development. We also show how different aspects of society, technology, business, and government policy contribute to social development are connected.

The Role Of ICT in Social Development:

As stated in the introduction, we define socio-economic development as a process of reform or improvement in the social and economic condition because they belong to an individual, an organization, or a society. Thus we can analyze socio-economic development at different levels, for example, Individuals, organizations, or countries. We point out that social development plays the most essential role as a dependent variable in our framework. We should note that the exact definition of socio-economic development varies in the literature. Also, the development economists have discussed more than that. However, the purpose of our framework is broader, covering different levels of social development and interpreters.

Somehow, our framework reflects the reversals of the various models of technology acceptance that have been proposed in the literature, as those models look at factors that explain the acceptance and use of Information and communication technology. Yet, at the same time, ICT is included in our framework as a defining factor—socio-economic development.

 In developing our framework, we considered four critical aspects of social development: society, technology, business, and policy. These four dimensions represent independent or descriptive variables, which explain changes in independence or reaction variables, socio-economic development. Therefore, we define different concepts within our framework within each of these four dimensions.

Policy Direction:

In this regard, we include three areas of policy that strongly affect social development: capital resources/markets, international organizations, and government.

By capital resources or markets, we refer to the overall availability and structure of financing business activities. These resources can provide financial support to businesses and government organizations to create or expand products or services. Therefore, how this capital market operates and runs smoothly has a substantial impact on business activities.

In this article, we define government policy as a set of rules, financing priorities, and reform measures.

Dimensions Of Technology

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In terms of technology, we include ICT and supporting technologies that enable people to get the most out of ICT.

The meanings of technology changed over time. The issues that have been discussed in the past with technology have been formulated terms. These include manufacturing, industry, invention, applied science, and the machine. In a narrow sense, technology can also be thought of as a combination of machinery and method. However, we adopt a comprehensive definition of technology, in line with the views of John Dewey, an American philosopher. He claimed that technology could not be limited to certain external and comparative mechanical forms. In our understanding of auxiliary technologies, the widely defined technology refers to ‘anything, tangible or invincible, that can contribute to a country’s economic, industrial or cultural development.

The term ICT is widely used as an extension or synonym for Information Technology (IT). Widely conceived, ICT is considered a combination of hardware, software, and communication networks that enable the capture, storage, processing, and transfer of electronic information. ICT and support technologies work together to sustain business activities and socio-economic growth.

Dimensions Of Society:

The dimensions of the society include education, human capital, and social capital. Researches have defined education as a “lifelong pursuit of knowledge, skills, and abilities that promotes personal growth and fulfillment, economic stability (at the individual and community level) and community enrichment”. The definition points out that education is a process that can take place in the settings of formal & informal, inside and outside the colleges, and universities.

Good (1959) defines human capital as “knowledge, skills, attitudes, adaptations, and other acquisitions that contribute to the production or specific work, resulting in economic value”. Human capital is the basis of the skills and knowledge needed to produce a particular product. It requires financial outlay and time to build and maintain. For example, it is often difficult to distinguish these expenditures on education and health from consumption.

 We define social capital as the ability to reach out to key people to make a project a success. In short, the goodwill of social capital is available to individuals or groups. Its source lies in the structure of the individual actor’s social relations.

Across society, another question on everyone’s mind is how ICT-powered education can help people improve their soft skills, which is an essential aspect of human and social capital. In their dissertation, the authors highlight teaching methods in developing human and social prosperity by shaping students’ soft skills.

Relationships Of ICT Within The Framework:

The relationship between concepts in our framework is derived from our reasoning and review of the existing framework, literature. First, there are four-dimensional effects on socio-economic development. Secondly, there are the interrelationships between the four dimensions. Also, as we discussed earlier, there is a relationship between constructions within each of the four dimensions. Some of these relationships are described in the papers in this particular issue. Should note that in clarifying the relationship between the relevant concepts, or the explanatory variables, we focused on the things we consider the most important relationships, most of which produced irrational relationships. Only the relationship between ancillary technologies and ICT is deemed to be bilateral. We realize that many other relationships can be bipartisan in specific contexts. However, we have decided to specify the most important associations relevant to the various settings.

Technology changes the way a business is run, which impacts business activities and the business base. In our special issue, Leek cites the impact of technology dimensions on the business dimension, which, in his paper, argues that enterprise information systems are evolving to improve efficiency and speed up business activities used in transition economies.

The dimensions of technology also have a significant impact on the dimensions of society. As technology is often an essential diver for social change. In our special issue, give examples of the effects of technology on the dimensions of society. Which in their dissertation shows the impact of e-learning from e-learning.

Final Conclusions:

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This article aims to create a multidimensional framework for ICT-assisted socio-economic development to inspire researchers in the field of ICT. We encourage researchers to validate and enhance the framework. It would also be helpful to establish a better ideological basis for justifying relations in our multilateral framework. Most research on social development lacks a theoretical lens. The development of new ideas or the use of existing ideas is precious.

In introducing a special issue on the role of ICT in socio-economic development, we provide a multidimensional conceptual framework that considers four aspects that affect socio-economic development: policy, business, technology, and society. This framework is based on several earlier frameworks but is more common in context, considering all ICTs rather than specific ICTs, and applies to all economies and regions rather than just less developed economies. We emphasize that growth occurs in both backward economies and highly developed economies, and although the effects of specific factors may vary in the strength and focus of their impact, standard concepts and relationships remain in our framework to apply.

In this way, we believe that our framework will help future researchers direct and focus their work, dealing with technology for social development. These include, among other things, investigating the role of international organizations and large corporations, tackling population growth challenges, and adapting the adoption of ICT to the country’s development level.

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